Installation of a domestic or agricultural wind turbine
Verified 12 April 2019 - Legal and Administrative Information Directorate (Prime Minister), Ministry of city planning
The installation of a domestic wind turbine, or small individual wind turbine, concerns onshore wind turbines (or wind generators) of less than 50 m, adapted to the needs of individuals, farmers, companies and public buildings. Its installation is regulated. The applicable rules vary depending on whether the wind turbine is more or less 12 m above the ground. It doesn't matter if there are several.
Wind turbine less than 12 m
A wind turbine of less than 12 m (height of the mast = distance from the ground to the top of the nacelle) may be located without prior authorization or building permit, except in classified or pending sites, in remarkable heritage sites and in the vicinity of historic monuments (prior notification required).
The installation project must comply with all the regulations concerning the use of the land, the location, the destination, the nature, the architecture, the dimensions, the sanitation of the buildings and the development of their surroundings.
A small wind turbine owner who fails to comply with city planning regulations is liable to a fine of at least €1,200.
Who shall I contact
Wind turbine from 12 m
The installation of a wind turbine between 12 m inclusive and 50 m is subject to the issue of a building permit.
The interested person must submit a request in 4 copies to the City Hall, regardless of the purpose of the energy production (self-consumption or resale).
The works must comply with the rules on land use, location, destination, nature, architecture, dimensions, sanitation of buildings and the development of their surroundings.
Who shall I contact
Furthermore, a wind turbine of more than 12 m in height is considered to be a classified installation for the protection of the environment (ICPE) subject to specific regulations (heading No 2980 of the ICPE nomenclature).
Before any installation, a person who wishes to install a wind turbine with a height from the ground of between 12 m and 50 m shall:
- for a total settled power of less than 20 megawatts: report under PCI
- for settled total power from 20 megawatts: obtain PCI authorization.
Once settled, a small wind turbine of at least 12 m must undergo a mandatory technical inspection.
before settling a wind turbine, it is recommended to carry out a study of the winds (speed, stability in direction, absence of turbulence for example), shading effects and to obtain agreement from the neighbors.
The installation of a domestic wind turbine is prohibited:
- in protected areas: national parks and nature reserves
- in military zones
- on buildings or sites classified or inscribed as historic monuments, and in the protection zones surrounding them (within a radius of 500 m)
- when prohibited by the local city planning plan (PLU).
It is necessary to contact the City Hall for further information.
Who shall I contact
If the land on which the wind turbine is to be settled had a forest destination, leading to a change in land use, a clearance must be obtained.
Unless specifically provided for in the local city planning plan (PLU) or in the municipal building regulations, the general building regulations apply to the installation of a wind turbine of less than 50 m: it must respect a distance from the boundary separating the neighborhood, equal to half its height, with a minimum of 3 m.
For example, a wind turbine 30 m high, including blades, must be 15 m away from the parcel boundary of the land on which it is settled.
Connection to the electricity grid
The small wind turbines can be connected to the public electricity grid (purchase of the energy produced) or directly power the building (self-consumption).
To electrify a building that is not connected to the public distribution network, the owner of the domestic wind turbine must make an electrification request to the town hall.
The owner of the wind turbine can resell the electricity by contacting an energy supplier known as the TEN (Electricity Transmission Network).
Obligation to purchase
At their request, onshore wind power producers benefit from the obligation to purchase, without conditions of location or power limit, by EDF and local companies if their production facilities are connected to the public distribution networks.
The additional cost incurred by those obligated purchasers shall be passed on to the final customers in proportion to their electricity consumption, which shall pay the contribution to the public electricity service (CSPE).
Those settling a small wind turbine on a building that has been completed for more than 2 years can benefit from a VAT rate of 10 % for the purchase of the equipment and its installation.
There are financial aid the purchase of a wind turbine, issued in particular by local authorities and the Electrification Depreciation Fund (FACÉ).
since 2016, the installation of a domestic wind turbine no longer benefits from the energy transition tax credit.
- City planning code: article L421-8City planning Permissions
- City planning code: article R*421-2Exemption for wind turbines under 12 m
- City planning code: article R111-17Minimum distance
- Energy Code: Articles L314-1 to L314-13Obligation to purchase
- Construction and housing code: article R111-38Technical inspection
- Onshore WindMinistry of the Environment
- Small Wind Turbine Data SheetEcological Transition Agency (Ademe)
- Aid for energy renovation worksNational Housing Agency (Anah)
- Access to and connection to public electricity networksMinistry of the Environment
- Contribution to the public electricity service (CSPE)Ministry of Economy